DuploCloud Terraform Provider

Using DuploCloud exclusive Terraform provider

DuploCloud has its own fully integrated Terraform Provider that interacts directly with our API; it is not simply wrapping existing Terraform modules. Learn more about our Terraform offerings in the Terraform Registry. Since we have a provider, we don't change how Terraform works. You simply provide credentials to the DuploCloud Terraform Provider. Many common patterns and use cases are available to help you create your desired stack.

Use this page to learn how DuploCloud aligns with Terraform terminology as well as how to configure your project.

Wrapper Scripts

DuploCloud provides useful wrapper scripts to execute your Terraform code. These scripts templatize common Terraform tasks and align with some custom implementations by DuploCloud. They cover selecting workspaces, initializing modules, finding variable files, etc.

If you have custom scripts or methods, the next sections cover requirements to successfully configure them to work with DuploCloud.

CI/CD

DuploCloud engineers can help you configure your pipelines to execute your Terraform scripts. Often times, it is simply a matter of running our wrapper scripts within a pipeline and inputting the workspace, module, and executable commands. The sections below describe specific steps to implement Terraform using CI/CD pipelines using these supported platforms:

Terraform Provider

To get started with the DuploCloud Terraform Provider, set these two environment variables:

export duplo_host="https://myportal.duplocloud.net"
export duplo_token="abc123"

Use this code to configure the provider in your module.

terraform {
  duplocloud = {
    source  = "duplocloud/duplocloud"
    version = "~> 0.10.21"
  }
}
provider "duplocloud" {}

AWS Provider

The DuploCloud provider has a data resource for JIT admin access to AWS. This is used to inject credentials into the Terraform AWS Provider. This ensures the AWS credentials you are using are never stored locally and is always in scope of the correct AWS account with a dedicated admin role.

data "duplocloud_admin_aws_credentials" "current" {}

# using JIT to inject creds
provider "aws" {
  region     = local.region
  access_key = data.duplocloud_admin_aws_credentials.current.access_key_id
  secret_key = data.duplocloud_admin_aws_credentials.current.secret_access_key
  token      = data.duplocloud_admin_aws_credentials.current.session_token
}

When using your local AWS configuration, there is a chance you are scoped into the wrong account, for example you want to run for dev but forgot you set AWS_PROFILE=prod. If you really would like to use the local configuration instead, you can use the duploctl jit aws to safely achieve this.

# uses local aws config
provider "aws" {
  region     = local.region
}

Generate the local AWS config with duploctl

duploctl jit update_aws_config myportal --interactive --admin

Then use this profile by setting

AWS_PROFILE=myportal

Kubernetes Provider

The DuploCloud provider has a data resource for JIT admin access to Kubernetes. This is used to inject credentials into the Terraform Kubernetes Provider, the Terraform Helm Provider, or any other Kubernetes based provider. This ensures the Kubernetes credentials you are using are never stored locally and always in scope of the correct Kubernetes cluster with a dedicated admin role.

data "duplocloud_eks_credentials" "current" {
  plan_id = local.infra_name
}
# using JIT to inject creds
provider "kubernetes" {
  host                   = data.duplocloud_eks_credentials.current.endpoint
  cluster_ca_certificate = data.duplocloud_eks_credentials.current.ca_certificate_data
  token                  = data.duplocloud_eks_credentials.current.token
}

Use duplocloud_gke_credentials when you are on GKE. For Azure AKS, simply use duplocloud_eks_credentials.

When using your local Kubernetes configuration, there is a chance you are scoped into the wrong cluster, for example you want to run for dev but forgot you set current-context: prod in your kubeconfig. If you really would like to use the local configuration instead, you can use the duploctl jit k8s to safely achieve this.

# Discovers config from KUBECONFIG environment variable
provider "kubernetes" {}

Generate the local KUBECONFIG with duploctl and use this context

duploctl jit update_kubeconfig --plan myinfra --interactive --admin

Terraform Backends

Each DuploCloud Portal manages its own Terraform state, and each public cloud has its own standards. On AWS we use S3 for the state and a DynamoDB Table for locking. On GCP we use their S3 buckets. On Azure a storage container is created.

Some of the benefits of using a managed backend for your state include:

  • Encrypted, secure, and compliant infrastructure

  • Consistency and integrity from using standard naming conventions (for example, duplo-tfstate-<account id>).

  • Isolation, in that each portal gets its own S3 Bucket for its state, as needed to segregate production from non-production environments.

  • Centralized management from installation by a unique instance of the DuploCloud Portal.

AWS S3 Bucket Backend

Within your Terraform configuration, you can use an S3 Bucket backend, as shown here:

backend "s3" {
  workspace_key_prefix = "tenants"
  key                  = "mymod.tfstate"
  encrypt              = true
}

Using the following code, discover and inject the S3 Bucket into the managed state backend by running a Terraform Init.

export AWS_ACCOUNT_ID="$(aws sts get-caller-identity --query "Account" --output text)"
export DUPLO_TF_BUCKET="duplo-tfstate-$AWS_ACCOUNT_ID"
terraform init \
  -backend-config=dynamodb_table=${DUPLO_TF_BUCKET}-lock \
  -backend-config=region=$AWS_DEFAULT_REGION \
  -backend-config=bucket=$DUPLO_TF_BUCKET

GCP GCS Bucket Backend

Within your Terraform configuration, use the following for a GCP GCS Bucket backend:

backend "gcs" {
  prefix = "mymod.tfstate"
}

Using the following code, discover and inject the GCP GCS Bucket into the managed backend state by running a Terraform Init.

export GCP_PROJECT_ID="my-project"
export DUPLO_TF_BUCKET="duplo-tfstate-$GCP_PROJECT_ID"
terraform init -backend-config=bucket=$DUPLO_TF_BUCKET

Azure Storage Account Backend

Within your Terraform configuration, use the following for Azure Storage Account backend:

backend "azurerm" {
  resource_group_name = "duplo-terraform-secure-infra"
  container_name      = "tfstate"
  key                 = "mymod.tfstate"
}

Using the following code, discover and inject the Azure Storage Account into the managed backend state by running a Terraform Init.

export AZURE_ACCOUNT_ID="my-project"
export RESOURCE_GROUP_NAME="duplo-terraform-secure-infra"
export DUPLO_TF_BUCKET="duplotfstate$AZURE_ACCOUNT_ID"
export ARM_ACCESS_KEY=$(az storage account keys list --resource-group $RESOURCE_GROUP --account-name $STORAGE_ACCOUNT_NAME --query '[0].value' -o tsv)
terraform init -backend-config=storage_account_name=$DUPLO_TF_BUCKET

Terraform Workspaces

DuploCloud uses a straightforward method to associate a Terraform Workspace to a corresponding DuploCloud resource: a workspace can be associated to any one of the following DuploCloud constructs, which serve as a template. These templates are similar in concept to classes from which objects are instantiated in many programming languages.

Using these DuploCloud constructs provides three distinct topological levels; each can be executed at various frequencies and provides some degree of desired variance. You can build this topology into your state's backend configuration to clearly organize your state files.

Portal Workspaces

Each Portal Workspace represents the configuration of one DuploCloud Portal, which in turn is managing one AWS Account, GCP Project, or Azure Subscription. Portal Workspaces are rarely executed, as they represent the highest and most global scope of your environment.

You might use them to create certificates and zones or any configuration which would be valid for one time only. Instances of Infrastructure Workspaces are sets of infrastructures contained by a single DuploCloud portal instance.

Use the following variable when the module represents a DuploCloud portal configuration.

locals {
  portal_name = terraform.workspace
}

The following code provides an example of how an Infrastructure module can be configured to reference a portal's state.

data "terraform_remote_state" "portal" {
  backend   = "s3"
  workspace = local.portal_name
  config = {
    bucket               = local.tfstate_bucket
    region               = local.default_region
    workspace_key_prefix = "portals"
    key                  = "portal.tfstate"
  }
}

Infrastructure Workspace

Each instance of a DuploCloud Infrastructure represents one Infrastructure Workspace. By using an Infrastructure Workspace, you are able to define the configuration for your infrastructure, such as certificates, domains, regions, or whether, for example, you'll use EKS, EC2, or ECS.

Often times the Infrastructure Workspace may contain extra services you want installed. Some examples of these services are Kubernetes operators, a bridge server for a cloud app, or any other app that is installed one time per Infrastructure.

Use the following variable when the module represents an Infrastructure configuration.

locals {
  infra_name = terraform.workspace
}

Here is how a Tenant Module can be configured to reference the infrastructures it is in

data "terraform_remote_state" "portal" {
  backend   = "s3"
  workspace = local.infra_name
  config = {
    bucket               = local.tfstate_bucket
    region               = local.default_region
    workspace_key_prefix = "infrastructures"
    key                  = "infrastructure.tfstate"
  }
}

Tenant Workspaces

Each instance of a DuploCloud Tenant represents one Tenant Workspace. The Portal and Infrastructure levels are likely to contain a single module as they are written for a singular purpose or job. Tenants, on the other hand, usually have a series of modules to be run within the workspace.

Common modules within a Tenant Workspace are:

  • Tenant - The configuration for the tenant itself.

  • Services - The cloud services like databases and file systems the application services will rely on

  • App - The configuration of the actual micro services and applications. This often will break out into multiple groups like frontend-app and backend-app.

Use this variable when the module represents a portal configuration.

locals {
  tenant_name = terraform.workspace
}

Here is how an application or services Module can reference a Tenants state.

data "terraform_remote_state" "portal" {
  backend   = "s3"
  workspace = local.tenant_name
  config = {
    bucket               = local.tfstate_bucket
    region               = local.default_region
    workspace_key_prefix = "tenants"
    key                  = "tenant.tfstate"
  }
}

Terraform Configurations

When executing a module for a workspace, there is often a Terraform Variables file with inputs for that module with the file extension .tfvars or .tfvars.json. This file can include nonsensitive inputs and be committed to version control.

To do this, create a directory named config at the same level as the Terraform modules directory. These directories usually reside at the top level of your repository.

Here is an example directory structure for modules and workspace configurations.

|__config
| |__nonprod
| | |__portal.tfvars.json
| |__nonpro01
| | |__infra.tfvars.json
| |__dev01
| | |__tenant.tfvars.json
| | |__services.tfvars.json
| | |__app.tfvars.json
|__modules
| |__portal
| |__infra
| |__tenant
| |__services
| |__app

Here is a simple BASH script that discovers the config file and applies the Application Module.

export WORKSPACE=dev01 
export MODULE=app
export MODULE_PATH="modules/${MODULE}"
export MODULE_CONFIG="$(pwd)/config/${WORKSPACE}/${MODULE}.tfvars.json"
terraform -chdir=$MODULE_PATH workspace select -or-create $WORKSPACE
terraform -chdir=$MODULE_PATH apply -var-file=$MODULE_CONFIG

Use a secret manager such as AWS Secret Manager and a data block to retrieve it, instead of passing secrets through variables. If you must use Terraform variables, inject the variable as a TF_VAR_myvar style environment variable from the CI/CD tool, which manages the execution.

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